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Red River Campaign and Others

Gary Joiner’s wonderful book “Mr. Lincoln’s Brown Water Navy” was the source of the following trivia questions. I was referring to the book at fill in on some of Shelby Foote’s narrative and just became excited about these interesting historical tidbits.

(Note: the numbers are my reference numbers for gatherings I am collecting for a second book which may never be published but forces me to stay organized)

1. Where did the first black nurses serve in the US armed forces?
Five African-American women were enlisted as first class boys (and paid accordingly) and served as nurses aboard the USS Red Rover. The best known is Ann Bradford Stokes, an escaped slave from Tennessee who was enlisted in January 1863 and served until late 1864.

2. What were the names of the two hospital ships were lost during the Civil War?
The USS Hospital Boat Woodford was lost on the Red River at the falls near Alexandria, Louisiana and the US Hospital Ship North America off Florida Coast 22 December 1864 with a loss of 194. No loss of life occurred on the Woodford.

3. Wellington W. Withenbury was an experienced riverboat pilot who may have been considered a double agent-aiding the Union fleet and also informing the rebel defenders. What was the interesting conflict of interest he had?
He owned several hundred bales of cotton and did not want the US Navy to steal it or have the Confederates burn it if it got close to capture. He was able to send General Banks on a round-about march route that saved his cotton. He changed the course of the campaign in a single night.

4. In what combat action was the first periscope used in battle?
On 12 April 1864 the monitor USS Osage aimed an 11-inch gun at a Confederate General Tom Green’s cavalry regiment at Blair’s Landing, Louisiana. From a range of 20 yards he broke up a shoreline ambush and killed Gen. Green by firing a point blank canister round.

5. During the Red River Campaign Admiral Porter lost his largest and most powerful ironclad warship. What was the name of the warship?
USS Eastport, a captured southern ironclad taken at Cerro Gordo, Tennessee on 7 February 1862 by the timberclad fleet

6. What tragic event occurred aboard the pump boat Champion #3 on 26 April 1864?
One hundred refugee slaves being transported to freedom were scalded to death below deck when the boiler was pierced by artillery fire and exploded. Interestingly, Admiral Porter gathered some of the refugees that had been rescued aboard the USS Cricket and trained them and formed a gun crew to suppress the rebel fire from the shore.

7. What was the final episode of the Civil War in the Mississippi Valley?
The surrender on 3 June 1865 of the final warship on inland waters at Shreveport-the greatly feared ironclad CSS Missouri under LT Jonathon Carter, CSN

8. How did the Confederate defenders of the Red River in 1864 create a dam to block the advancing US Fleet?
They took the huge river steamer New Falls City and wedged it across the channel at the mouth of the Scopini Cut-off (about 45 miles south of Shreveport) such that it extended 15 feet onto both shorelines. Then they filled it with sand and rock and broke its keel. When Admiral Porter saw the obstruction he decided to retreat back down the river.

Some Interesting Trivia Questions from Shelby Foote

After many years writing Trivia questions for The Civil War Roundtable of St Louis I turned over the responsibility. But I still read a lot and enjoy finding facts and incidents that amaze me. I have been reading Shelby Foote’s Civil War trilogy and his narrative style is great because it causes me to fill in the blanks. Here are a few questions that I recently uncovered and wanted to share.

74. Why did Commodore Andrew Foote have serious concerns about employing the Eads’ gunboats against Island No. 10 and New Madrid when he had no such concerns at Forts Henry and Donelson?
Foote knew that had the South captured one of the gunboats it would be able to defeat all the riverine forces of the Union on the upper Mississippi and threaten all the cities and towns on the river. When the gunboats’ engines were damaged or had their steering out of action on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers they floated back into Union controlled territory due to the direction of the current. However, in the decent of the Mississippi, similar damage to steering would risk putting them in Confederate hands as they would float down into Confederate territory. Due to the river stage and current flow the gunboats’ could not hold station under reverse power even with the help of anchors which would not be able to hold them back as they could not get purchase on the river’s slimy bottom. The armor of the vessels was oriented toward the bow with little or no protection to the aft sides or stern. The curves of the river required the slowing of the vessels in the bends and made the unarmored portions extremely vulnerable.

75. Why did Commodore Andrew Foote refuse to order his ironclad gunboats to go down river to assist General Pope in his attack on Island No. 10?
Foote refused to order his officers to undertake a mission he considered impossible and foolhardy. He was, however, willing to allow a volunteer to make the run past Island Ten. Commander Henry Walke and the USS Carondelet volunteered to make the attempt on a moonless night with special preparations made to his boat. Upon his successful run Foote allowed the USS Pittsburg to make the run two nights later. The two gunboats escorted Pope’s transports across the river and captured the fortified island and its garrison, guns and provisions without the loss of a single man in combat.

76. What Union general was fond of smoking a long-stemmed meerschaum pipe and changed his smoking habit and trimmed his beard, which reached his second coat button, when he received a fast promotion?
US Grant began smoking cigars because he received many boxes after Ft. Donelson and he decided to improve his command image by the shorter beard.

77. What Union general went into action at Shiloh with a crutch strapped to his saddle like a carbine?
US Grant’s leg was injured when his horse fell on him due to the very wet ground. When the battle broke out at Shiloh Grant went directly to Pittsburg Landing accompanied by the crutch.

78. Who was the Confederate general who gave the order to end the fighting at dark on the first day at Shiloh just as a major push against Grant’s force might have ended the battle with a Southern triumph?
PGT Beauregard gave the order from the rear Headquarters without knowing the immediate situation at Dill’s Branch.

Ft Craig, New Mexico and The battle of Valverde

The Battle of Valverde Crossing south of Albuquerque was the site of the 1862 clash between the Union garrison of Ft Craig and Confederate forces of Gen HH Sibley. The action occurred because Sibley, moving north along the Rio Grande River, had planned to capture supplies from the Union garrisons and outposts along his northward march. He had visions of taking for the Confederacy the gold fields of Colorado and eventually cutting his way through to California.
He launched his campaign from El Paso, Texas and having achieved success in capturing several Union posts in the early going planned to take Ft. Craig. But seeing the recently improved the log and earthen fort he decided to by-pass it. He knew he did not have sufficient strength to assault the works and was further dissuaded by the numerous Quaker Guns and soldiers’ caps filled with rocks placed along the fort’s outer defenses.
When the commander of the fort, Col ERS Canby, decided to come out and fight at the Valverde site, Sibley realized that he had a good chance at success.
The fight took place on and at the base of Black Mesa, now known as El Mesa Contadero which was so named because it was the base of a volcanic cone which was covered with the black lava from the last eruption. The top of the vent is still clearly visible today as a small rise in the center of the mesa.
Ft Craig was sited at the junction of the Rio Grande and the old 1000-mile Camino Real used as a major trade route from Mexico City and Santa Fe. There is a ninety mile section of the route that transits the desert stretch referred to as the Jornada del Muerto, or “journey of death” because of the lack of watering sites and the attacks of marauding Apaches, who could watch for the travelers from mountain peaks and then ride down on the unprotected groups. Ft Craig was placed to protect the travelers and played an important role in the Apache Wars of the late 1800”s
The site of the Battle of Valverde is now on private land belonging to the 1810 land grant of Pedro Armendaris 33 Ranch now owned by Ted Turner. The 385,000 acre ranch now is home to Turner’s personal bison herd and other species that he is raising for various reasons.
Should you ever be traveling on I-25, south of Albuquerque, a visit to the fort only nine miles East of the highway is worth the time.

May 2016 St Louis Civil War Roundtable Quiz Answers

St. Louis Civil War Roundtable – May 2016
1. What were the “omnibus promotions”?
On 13 March 1865 many Union Volunteer officers were summarily promoted to brevet grades due to their wartime meritorious service. The lowest rank to be promoted to Brevet Brigadier General was captain and these few were staff officers. Many officers advanced from Brigadier to Major General and Colonel to Brigadier. There were additional dates for other omnibus promotions at the end of the war.
2. In what speech did President Lincoln say, “You cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong”?
Former President Ronald Reagan ascribed the quote to Lincoln but it was not a Lincoln quote at all but was written by Presbyterian Minister William Boetcker in a 1916 pamphlet in the Lincoln style. This is not a rare occurrence.
3. On the morning of 4 April 1865 President Lincoln arrived at what southern city to tour the vicinity? On what conveyance did he arrive? What horse did he ride on the tour?
He visited Petersburg after the Confederates left, he arrived on the US Military Railroad and he was provided Grant’s favorite horse Cincinnati.
4. Many are familiar with the story of the Confederate horse artilleryman Gallant Major Pelham. Who was the Union horse artilleryman who rode to the aid of the assaulting Federals? He was memorialized by an 1886 ink drawing entitled Fall of the Leaders?
Captain John G. Hazard, Rhode Island Light Artillery Battery. He later became the commander of the Artillery Brigade of the II Corps (US). At Gettysburg 1LT Alonzo Cushing commanded the battery.
5. Who are buried in the only two mausoleums in Arlington National Cemetery?
Lt. General Nelson A. Miles, Commanding General US Army 1895-1903 and MOH for Chancellorsville; and Commissary General of Subsistence Brigadier Thomas Crook Sullivan. Sullivan was brevetted Major and Lt. Col. at end of Civil War.
6. Which is larger Ft Jefferson or Ft Sumter?
Ft. Sumter covers 2.35 acres and Ft. Jefferson covers 47.125 acres. Sumter was built for 135 guns Jefferson for 1000. Ft Jefferson is the largest masonry structure in the US and was constructed of 16,000,000 bricks.
7. On 20 October 1863 Col. Frank Wolford’s “Wild Riders” of the 1st Kentucky (Union) Cavalry was bested by Confederate cavalrymen of the 8th Tennessee under Col. George Dibrell and Col. J. J. Morrison at Philadelphia, Tennessee. What was the interesting logistical reason that this Federal defeat?
They ran out of ammunition because of the difficulty in supplying nine different types of ammunition for Sharps, Gallager, and Cosmopolitan carbines; Colt revolving and Henry Rifles, Springfield and Enfield muskets and .36 and .44-caliber colt revolvers. The haphazard arming of western cavalry regiments with a wide array of weapons and the questionable quality of some of the weapons was a not unusual situation. For example: the Gallager carbine was described as not equal to a bar of iron because of the difficulty with frequent vent clogging and extraction of poorly designed spent cartridges. Troopers were issued a special wrench and screwdriver to remove jammed spent lipless cartridges. Great fun to use on horseback!
8. Who was Robert Walter Weir and what influence did he have on Civil War officers?
He was Professor of Drawing at West Point for 42 years and instructed Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Seth Eastman, James McNeill Whistler and many others. The techniques he taught were of use in map making and the appreciation of terrain features. Design and construction planning of seacoast fortifications and strategic defensive positions was the domain of the Engineer Corps and water color renderings were the norm for the period. Weir painted the famous oil on canvas hanging in the rotunda of the US Capitol entitled Embarkation of the Pilgrims. Weir painted famous portraits of Winfield Scott, James Monroe, Denis Hart Mahon, Sylvanus Thayer and Robert E. Lee (one of only two made before the war).

9. St Andrew’s Bay, Florida was the site of 1862-63 raids and amphibious assaults to destroy a Confederate production site of what strategic commodity?
Between 1861 and 1865, the St. Andrew Bay Salt Works was one of the largest producers of salt in the South, a necessary preservative in those times. Salt sold for as much as $50 per bushel, and was produced in wood-fired salt works throughout the area. An estimated 2,500 men, primarily from Florida, Georgia, and Alabama, were exempted from combat duty to labor in the salt works. The salt was transported to Eufaula, Alabama, then to Montgomery, for distribution throughout the Confederate States. Because of the importance of St. Andrew Bay Salt Works to the Confederacy, acting Master W. R. Browne, commander of the USS Restless, was instructed to commence a series of assaults beginning in August 1862. By December 1863, additional Union attacks occurred, which Confederate home guards could not resist. The attacks resulted in the destruction of more than 290 salt works including 466 salt pans, kettles or cauldrons each over a crude bricked furnace. About a thousand bushels of salt were destroyed, as well as some fifty wagons and several score shacks, cabins, and rough store houses…“We had to knock down all the brick work, destroy the salt already made, and to knock in the barrel heads and set fire to barrels, boxes, and everything that would hold salt. 50 of them under sheet iron boilers of near 1,000 gallons capacity each were broken up. 250 houses and a quantity of provisions were burned valued by Master Browne at more than $3,000,000. The St. Andrew Bay Salt Works employees promptly rebuilt them, and they remained in operation through February 1865. At the beginning of the war the US was the largest user of salt in the world and the southern states used more than any other region. The antebellum south used 450 million pounds of salt a year most imported from England and Wales. There were six salt production regions in the south: The Kanawha Valley in West Virginia; Goose Creek Kentucky; Mobile, Alabama region; New Iberia, Louisiana; Saltville in southwestern Virginia’s remote highlands and St. Andrew’s Bay.
10. What two very high ranking Confederate generals shared a Southern cavalry nephew?
Robert E Lee and Samuel Cooper were both uncles to Fitzhugh Lee. Cooper’s sister-in law was Fitzhugh’s mother and was married to Robert’s Brother Sidney Smith Lee.
11. What was the name of the Lincoln Funeral Train rail car?
United States. It was built at the US Military Railroad Shop in Alexandria, Virginia between November 1863 and February 1865 and was intended to serve as the President’s private railcar.
12. How many Confederate officers or soldiers received brevet promotions?
None. Confederate policy allowed for such promotions but none were ever awarded.
13. What was the name of the vessel Admiral D. D. Porter sent to rescue the USS Indianola from rebel forces on the Lower Mississippi River in March 1863?
The USS Dummy!! It was a 300-ft wood hoax that cost $8.63. It frightened the Confederates into scuttling the recently captured Indianola. The only thing salvaged was the contents of the liquor locker.
14. What Civil War families provided more than one family member who became a general, admiral or a recognized Civil War hero? (I have 15 there are probably more. How many can you list?)
• Lee: Robert E, and sons G. W. Custis, W. H. Fitzhugh “Rooney”. All were Confederate Generals and Captain Sydney Smith Lee, CSN, hero of Gosport Navy Yard, Drewry’s Bluff and father of Confederate General Fitz Lee.
• Sherman; Union General brothers William Tecumseh and Francis T. and half-brothers Charles, Hugh B. and Thomas Ewing Jr.
• Semmes; Confederate BG Paul and Confederate Admiral Rafael (Captain of CSS Alabama)
• Rains: Confederates Gabriel J. (first use of Land Mines) and brother G.W.(Commander and founder of Augusta Powder Works).
• Cushing; Union Army Captain Alonzo H (MOH Gettysburg) and brother Navy Lt. William B. (the original SEAL).
• DuPont: Union Admiral Samuel F. DuPont and cousin Henry Algernon (Union artillerist and MOH for Cedar Creek, VA) later Major General.
• Porter: Brothers Admiral David Dixon Porter, Commodore William D. Porter and their adoptive brother Admiral David G. Farragut
• McCook: father Maj. Daniel, Sr., sons MG Alexander M., BG Robert Latimer, MG Edwin Stanton, BG Daniel, and cousins BG Edward M. and BG Anson G.
• Blair: Union Major General F. Preston Jr. and Montgomery (US Postmaster General)
• Hill: Confederate Generals AP Hill and cousin DH Hill.
• Drayton: Union Navy Flag-Captain Percival Drayton and General Thomas F. Drayton CSA.
• Terrill: BG William R. Terrill USA, (KIA Perryville) and BG James B Terrill, CSA (KIA Bethesda Church). Also two other brothers died in the war one serving on each side.
• Cooke: Union general Philip St. George Cooke and son-in-law Col. John Jacob Sharp and Confederate son General John Rogers Cooke and son-in-law JEB Stuart.
• Howard: Union generals Oliver O. Howard and brother Charles H. Howard went to Bowdoin College and West Point
• Dahlgren: RAdm. John A Dahlgren naval weapons pioneer; Capt (USN) Charles B. Dahlgren neutralized Vicksburg batteries; Col. Ulrich Dahlgren killed leading a famous raid on Richmond; and CS BG Charles G. Dahlgren (brother of John A.) raised and funded 3rd Brigade Army of Mississippi until relieved by Jeff Davis in a personal dispute.
• Ellet: Col Chas Ellet, Jr.; hero of Battle of Memphis(only KIA in the battle), brother BG A.W Ellet who seceded to command; son Col Chas R. Ellet took command after his uncle’s death.

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

May 2106 Quiz ST Louis Civil War Roundtable

St. Louis Civil War Roundtable – May 2016
1. What were the “omnibus promotions”?

2. In what speech did President Lincoln say, “You cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong”?

3. On the morning of 4 April 1865 President Lincoln arrived at what southern city to tour the vicinity? On what conveyance did he arrive? What horse did he ride on the tour?

4. Many are familiar with the story of the Confederate horse artilleryman Gallant Major Pelham. Who was the Union horse artilleryman who rode to the aid of the assaulting Federals? He was memorialized by an 1886 ink drawing entitled Fall of the Leaders?

5. Who are buried in the only two mausoleums in Arlington National Cemetery?

6. Which is larger Ft Jefferson or Ft Sumter?

7. On 20 October 1863 Col. Frank Wolford’s “Wild Riders” of the 1st Kentucky (Union) Cavalry was bested by Confederate cavalrymen of the 8th Tennessee under Col. George Dibrell and Col. J. J. Morrison at Philadelphia, Tennessee. What was the interesting logistical reason that this Federal defeat?

8. Who was Robert Walter Weir and what influence did he have on Civil War officers?

9. St Andrew’s Bay, Florida was the site of 1862-63 raids and amphibious assaults to destroy a Confederate production site of what strategic commodity?

10. What two very high ranking Confederate generals shared a Southern cavalry nephew?

11. What was the name of the Lincoln Funeral Train rail car?

12. How many Confederate officers or soldiers received brevet promotions?

13. What was the name of the vessel Admiral D. D. Porter sent to rescue the USS Indianola from rebel forces on the Lower Mississippi River in March 1863?

14. What Civil War families provided more than one family member who became a general, admiral or a recognized Civil War hero? (I have 15 there are probably more. How many can you list?

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

March 2016 CW Roundtable Quiz Answers

1. Who appointed George Pickett to the United States Military Academy Class of 1846?
Representative John T Stuart (D-Illinois) in 1842. Pickett was in Springfield studying law with Lincoln and Stuart who arranged the appointment. Pickett would never allow harsh comments about Lincoln in his presence. It is rumored that when Lincoln was in Richmond after the fall, he called upon Pickett’s home and met his wife, Sally, and kissed his baby boy. He introduced himself as “Abraham Lincoln, a friend”. Lincoln was a US Representative from 1847-49
2. What two brothers attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine in the 1850’s? One went on to attend the US Military Academy the other didn’t. One became a general in the Civil War and the other was his aide. Both brothers were wounded during the war.
Oliver Otis Howard (USMA 1854) and his younger brother Charles Henry were from Leeds, Maine. Oliver lost his right arm at Fair Oaks. Charles was wounded in the leg at Fair Oaks and again at Fredericksburg. Charles was discharged as a brigadier general being promoted 15 April 1865.
3. What was the common name normally used for the “Griffin Gun”?
The three-inch Ordnance Rifle, invented by John Griffin and manufactured at the Phoenix Iron Company in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania. This durable wrought iron rifle was considered the favorite of the cannoneers and was deadly accurate at anything under a mile.
4. What anti-emancipation Democrat was a frequent visitor to the White House?
Representative John T. Stuart was a favorite cousin of Mary Todd Lincoln and as a member of Congress after his election in 1862 over Republican Leonard Swett was a frequent visitor at the White House even though he was opposed to some Lincoln policies. He was defeated in 1864 by Republican Shelby Moore Cullom, a Lincoln ally.
5. When the 1st Maryland (CS) Infantry Regiment assaulted Culp’s Hill on 3 July 1863 at Gettysburg it reported 31 and 1 killed. Who was the one?
It was the regiment’s black mascot dog, Grace. Union General Thomas Kane recalled, “He licked someone’s hand, they said, after he was perfectly riddled.” Kane ordered the dog given decent burial “as the only Christian minded being on either side.” The charge is memorialized by Peter Frederick Rothermel’s 1870 oil painting. It was the first Confederate monument at Gettysburg and met a great deal of resistance from the battlefield commission authorities. It was finally allowed to be erected and was dedicated in 1884. But the commission required it to be designated as the “2nd Maryland Infantry” even though the unit was known as the First Maryland Battalion at the time of the battle. The reason given was there were already two Union regiments designated as the First Maryland and the Confederate 1st Maryland Battalion had been re-designated as the Second Maryland Regiment in 1864. This is not to be confused with the 11th Pennsylvania’s famous mascot “Sallie”.
6. Who was the Pennsylvania born Illinois music teacher that as an 8-year old child had been kicked by a horse and nearly killed thereby developing a fear and hatred of horses? He became a famous Union cavalry leader and ultimately a major general.
Benjamin Henry Grierson, he organized the US 10th Cavalry, Buffalo Soldiers and served on the frontier until retiring in 1890.
7. Who wrote the bestselling “anti-Tom” novel Aunt Phillis’s Cabin or Southern Life As It Is?
While in Washington, D.C. Mary Henderson Eastman, wife of Seth Eastman, wrote the counter to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s history changing book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin or Life Among The Lowly. Defending slavery, her novel was one of the most widely read at the time and sold 20,000-30,000 copies.
8. What were the names of the two main company streets at Camp Jackson in May 1861?
Davis and Beauregard
9. Whose name was the last uttered by Gen. Thomas J. Jackson on his deathbed?
Major Wells Joseph Hawks, Jackson’s commissary officer. After Jackson died he was staff for Ewell, Early and in Pennsylvania Lee. Per Shelby Foote, “Shortly after 3 o’clock, a few minutes before he died (Jackson) called out: “Order A. P. Hill to prepare for action! Pass the infantry to the front…Tell Major Hawks…” He left the sentence unfinished. Seeming to put the war behind him he calmly said “Let us cross over the river, and rest in the shade of the trees”, the quintessential compliment to military logisticians including Grant, Sherman, Hancock and many others.
10. What Southern officers and personalities were honored throughout the Confederacy upon their deaths? (I have six. How many can you name?)
MG James Ewell Brown Stuart
LTG Leonidas Polk
BG John Hunt Morgan
Major John Pelham
Mrs. Rose O’Neal Greenhow
LTG Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson

March St Louis Civil War Roundtable Quiz

1. Who appointed George Pickett to the United States Military Academy Class of 1846?

2. What two brothers attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine in the 1850’s? One went on to attend the US Military Academy the other didn’t. One became a general in the Civil War and the other was his aide. Both brothers were wounded during the war.

3. What was the common name normally used for the “Griffin Gun”?

4. What anti-emancipation democrat was a frequent visitor to the White House?

5. When the 1st Maryland (CS) Infantry Regiment assaulted Culp’s Hill on 3 July 1863 at Gettysburg it reported 31 and 1 killed. Who was the one?

6. Who was the Pennsylvania born Illinois music teacher that as an 8-year old child had been kicked by a horse and nearly killed thereby developing a fear and hatred of horses? He became a famous Union cavalry leader and ultimately a major general.

7. Who wrote the bestselling “anti-Tom” novel Aunt Phillis’s Cabin or Southern Life As It Is?

8. What were the names of the two main company streets at Camp Jackson in May 1861?

9. Whose name was the last uttered by Gen. Thomas J. Jackson on his deathbed?

10. What Southern officers and personalities that were honored throughout the Confederacy upon their deaths? (I have six. How many can you name?)

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

SLCWRT Feb Quiz Answers

1. What members of the Lincoln family accompanied the president’s remains on the Funeral Train Journey?
Son Robert Lincoln and his deceased brother William Wallace “Willie” Lincoln, whose casket was also in the President’s funeral car. Mary and Tad stayed in Washington. Lincoln’s cousin, John Hanks and Robert Lincoln were his only blood relatives at the burial.
2. In what battle did a 200 mule charge inspire an anonymous poet to write “The Charge of the Mule Brigade”?
At the battle at Wauhatchie, Tennessee, on the night of October 28, 1863, Union General John Geary’s troops held off the Confederates of General James Longstreet. Some 200 mules became terrified by the noisy battle and stampeded through the night into the center of General Wade Hampton’s southerners. Deciding that this was a cavalry attack, a good number of Hampton’s troops panicked and fled.
3. Union Generals Grant, Rufus Ingalls and Sheridan and others occasionally conversed in what unusual language?
Chinook Jargon was a pigeon-English dialect they learned during their time in the Pacific Northwest before the war. Sheridan lived with a native woman named Sidnayoh. West Point classmates Grant and Ingalls served together at Ft. Vancouver, Oregon Territory. George Pickett also spoke the dialect.
4. What ironclad raider was built is France for the Confederate Navy but was commissioned too late to be of any service?
The CSS Stonewall was built in Bordeaux, France launched 21 June 1864 and commissioned in January 1865 under Captain Thomas J Page CSN. It was the only Confederate warship built in France.
5. Considering the amount of time Civil War soldiers spent in the field, snake bite was not as serious a problem as one might think. How many snake bite cases were reported in the Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion? How many fatalities?
213 bites from poisonous snakes were reported. There were only two fatalities reported including one at Pensacola, Florida where a Confederate soldier was bitten by a coral snake.
6. What was the only US Territory to pass legislation protecting chattel slavery? What was the slave population of the territory?
New Mexico in 1859. Slave population was two (2).
7. According to the estimate of Col J. H. Baker, provost-marshal general in St. Louis, how many steamboats owned in St. Louis had been destroyed during the four years of war by sabotage?
More than seventy with only nine destroyed in combat. Edward Frazor was reportedly paid $35,000 in gold to settle their claims for destroyed US property by Judah P. Benjamin, Confederate Sec of War during the summer of 1864.
8. What was the unique responsibility of the Union company called the Sturgis Rifles?
A separate militia company organized at Chicago, armed, equipped and subsisted for nearly two months by the patriotic generosity of Mr. Solomon Sturgis. The company of Illinois sharpshooters mustered into Federal service on May 6, 1861. They served as part of Major General George B. McClellan’s headquarters bodyguard throughout his time in command. McClellan had been a member of the company prior to the war and outfitted them with the Sharps rifle, an expensive rifle not issued to regular infantrymen. The company was mustered out on November 25, 1862. Commanded by Captain James Steel, the regiment lost one enlisted man who died of disease, for a total of one fatality. The company was never brigaded.
9. What army did Gen. U. S. Grant steal? (Hint: it occurred in December 1862)
When Grant had been give command in the West he was told by Halleck that he commanded all the forces in his area and could use them as he saw fit. About the same time, Gen John C. McClernand had been given authority by President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton to recruit his own army to take Vicksburg. McClernand recruited volunteers in Illinois, Indiana and Iowa and had them assemble in Memphis. When Grant got wind of the competitive army, he sent Sherman to Memphis and moved the entire army south on riverboats to attack Chickasaw Bluffs. When McClernand arrived at Memphis on 29 December he learned his army had been shipped out on the 19th. He was given a corps command under Grant for his trouble.

10. Nominate your list of the ten (10) most accomplished cavalry leaders of the Civil War for the title of “Best
Civil War Cavalry Commander”.
JEB Stuart
Fitzhugh Lee
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Wade Hampton
Phil Sheridan
George A. Custer
Joe Wheeler
David McM Gregg
Alfred Pleasonton
Philip St George Cooke
John Bufford
Thomas Rosser
George Stoneman

copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

Answers to January 2016 CWRT Trivia Quiz

1. Who is thought to have designed the Rising Moon Confederate battle flag?
The “Hardee” flag was believed to be designed by Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner although some references credit Gen. Hardee. The flag of Hardee’s corps was favored by Arkansas regiments and when the ANV flag was brought west by Gen. Beauregard in a move to standardization, Gen. Patrick Cleburne refused to use it as they were very attached to the blue flag that had Scottish legacy attached.
2. Mr. John Steiner on 25 March 1862 performed what tactical assignment that was unique in the western theaters?
He adjusted artillery fire on Island No. 10 from a balloon, the only balloon operation in the west.

3. Army Captain Henry Maynadier commanded what naval bombardment in March1862?
He was the commander of the fourteen mortar scows bombarding Island No. 10.

4. How was Confederate cavalry commander BG James H. Dearing killed?
During Lee’s retreat in April, 1865, he was mortally wounded in a encounter with Union Brigadier Theodore Read, commanding a combined infantry/cavalry force of Ord’s Army of the James. The two met on the 5th of April at High Bridge above the Appomattox, at the head of their forces, and a pistol duel ensued. General Read was instantly killed, but General Dearing lingered for a few days after the surrender of General Lee, when he died in the old City hotel at Lynchburg.
5. Who was the last general of either side killed in the Civil War?
Confederate Brigadier Robert C. Tyler was killed 16 April 1865 defending Ft. Tyler near West Point, Georgia.
6. What Union unit was known as the “Lightning Brigade” and the “Hatchet Brigade”?
Col. John T. Wilder’s brigade of Reynolds’s division—1,500 men of the 17th and 72nd Indiana regiments and the 98th and 123rd Illinois got their nicknames at Hoover’s Gap in June 1863 in the Tulahoma Campaign. They found horses and mules in the countryside and armed themselves with long handled hatchets for hand-to-hand combat, which caused their unit to be derisively nicknamed the “Hatchet Brigade”. Their more lethal armament were the seven-shot Spencer repeating rifles carried by all the men. Wilder’s brigade had mobility and firepower, but also high unit morale.
7. Who was the war correspondent for the New York Tribune who reported on the Battle of Shiloh and after the war became a financier, philanthropist and founder of the company we know as General Electric?
Henry Villard was the representative of a news agency established by him in Washington and was often at the front. Out of his experiences reporting the Civil War, he became a confirmed pacifist.
8. What were the duty stations of Captain Lewis A. Armistead and Captain Winfield Scott Hancock when they celebrated their famous parting before the Civil War?
Armistead was at the New San Diego Depot and Hancock was an assistant quartermaster at Los Angeles under Brevet Brigadier Albert Sidney Johnston.
9. Who is the highest ranking Confederate general officer buried in a St. Louis cemetery?Lieutenant General (temporary) Alexander Peter Stewart, who was commander of the III Corps of the Army of Tennessee at Franklin and Nashville and Commanding General of the Army of Tennessee under Joe Johnston in the Carolinas. He is buried at Bellefontaine Cemetery.
10. Who were Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston’s Confederate Corps Commanders at Shiloh?
John C. Breckinridge, William Hardee, Braxton Bragg and Leonides K. Polk. PGT Beauregard was his second in command and the officer who drew up the battle plan. Stationed in the rear by Johnston he was not able to take command when Johnston was killed. The ranking officer at the front was Bragg, who called of the offensive against Grant’s last line.

11. What Civil War developments had a profound effect on all of future military thinking? (I have 6 there may be more)(This is a thinking question just scour you memory)
• 8 March 1852 wooden navies became obsolete at the Battle of Hampton Roads
• 24 June 1863 single shot weapons became obsolete when Wilder’s Brigade engage Confederates with Spencer repeating rifles at Hoover’s Gap
• 17 February 1864 surface vessels at risk USS Housatonic sunk by CSS Hunley.
• 22 May 1863 Union conducts first synchronized assault on line from Stockade Redan to Ft. Garrott at Vicksburg due to availability of inexpensive pocket watch.
• The possibilities of air reconnaissance and attack from the air were the progeny of the balloon corps.
• Grant’s and Sherman’s concept of total war became the war philosophy of the future.
(There are many many other technical developments)

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

CWRT St Louis January 2016 Quiz

January 2016

1. Who is thought to have designed the Rising Moon Confederate battle flag?

2. Mr. John Steiner on 25 March 1862 performed what tactical assignment that was unique in the western theaters?

3. Army Captain Henry Maynadier commanded what naval bombardment in March1862?

4. How was Confederate cavalry commander BG James H. Dearing killed?

5. Who was the last general of either side killed in the Civil War?

6. What Union unit was known as the “Lightning Brigade” and the “Hatchet Brigade”?

7. Who was the war correspondent for the New York Tribune who reported on the Battle of Shiloh and after the war became a financier, philanthropist and founder of the company we know as General Electric?

8. What were the duty stations of Captain Lewis A. Armistead and Captain Winfield Scott Hancock when they celebrated their famous parting before the Civil War?

9. Who is the highest ranking Confederate general officer buried in a St. Louis cemetery?

10. Who were Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston’s Confederate Corps Commanders at Shiloh?

11. What Civil War developments had a profound effect on all of future military thinking? (I have 6 there may be more)(This is a thinking question just scour you memory)

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

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