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May 2016 St Louis Civil War Roundtable Quiz Answers

St. Louis Civil War Roundtable – May 2016
1. What were the “omnibus promotions”?
On 13 March 1865 many Union Volunteer officers were summarily promoted to brevet grades due to their wartime meritorious service. The lowest rank to be promoted to Brevet Brigadier General was captain and these few were staff officers. Many officers advanced from Brigadier to Major General and Colonel to Brigadier. There were additional dates for other omnibus promotions at the end of the war.
2. In what speech did President Lincoln say, “You cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong”?
Former President Ronald Reagan ascribed the quote to Lincoln but it was not a Lincoln quote at all but was written by Presbyterian Minister William Boetcker in a 1916 pamphlet in the Lincoln style. This is not a rare occurrence.
3. On the morning of 4 April 1865 President Lincoln arrived at what southern city to tour the vicinity? On what conveyance did he arrive? What horse did he ride on the tour?
He visited Petersburg after the Confederates left, he arrived on the US Military Railroad and he was provided Grant’s favorite horse Cincinnati.
4. Many are familiar with the story of the Confederate horse artilleryman Gallant Major Pelham. Who was the Union horse artilleryman who rode to the aid of the assaulting Federals? He was memorialized by an 1886 ink drawing entitled Fall of the Leaders?
Captain John G. Hazard, Rhode Island Light Artillery Battery. He later became the commander of the Artillery Brigade of the II Corps (US). At Gettysburg 1LT Alonzo Cushing commanded the battery.
5. Who are buried in the only two mausoleums in Arlington National Cemetery?
Lt. General Nelson A. Miles, Commanding General US Army 1895-1903 and MOH for Chancellorsville; and Commissary General of Subsistence Brigadier Thomas Crook Sullivan. Sullivan was brevetted Major and Lt. Col. at end of Civil War.
6. Which is larger Ft Jefferson or Ft Sumter?
Ft. Sumter covers 2.35 acres and Ft. Jefferson covers 47.125 acres. Sumter was built for 135 guns Jefferson for 1000. Ft Jefferson is the largest masonry structure in the US and was constructed of 16,000,000 bricks.
7. On 20 October 1863 Col. Frank Wolford’s “Wild Riders” of the 1st Kentucky (Union) Cavalry was bested by Confederate cavalrymen of the 8th Tennessee under Col. George Dibrell and Col. J. J. Morrison at Philadelphia, Tennessee. What was the interesting logistical reason that this Federal defeat?
They ran out of ammunition because of the difficulty in supplying nine different types of ammunition for Sharps, Gallager, and Cosmopolitan carbines; Colt revolving and Henry Rifles, Springfield and Enfield muskets and .36 and .44-caliber colt revolvers. The haphazard arming of western cavalry regiments with a wide array of weapons and the questionable quality of some of the weapons was a not unusual situation. For example: the Gallager carbine was described as not equal to a bar of iron because of the difficulty with frequent vent clogging and extraction of poorly designed spent cartridges. Troopers were issued a special wrench and screwdriver to remove jammed spent lipless cartridges. Great fun to use on horseback!
8. Who was Robert Walter Weir and what influence did he have on Civil War officers?
He was Professor of Drawing at West Point for 42 years and instructed Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Seth Eastman, James McNeill Whistler and many others. The techniques he taught were of use in map making and the appreciation of terrain features. Design and construction planning of seacoast fortifications and strategic defensive positions was the domain of the Engineer Corps and water color renderings were the norm for the period. Weir painted the famous oil on canvas hanging in the rotunda of the US Capitol entitled Embarkation of the Pilgrims. Weir painted famous portraits of Winfield Scott, James Monroe, Denis Hart Mahon, Sylvanus Thayer and Robert E. Lee (one of only two made before the war).

9. St Andrew’s Bay, Florida was the site of 1862-63 raids and amphibious assaults to destroy a Confederate production site of what strategic commodity?
Between 1861 and 1865, the St. Andrew Bay Salt Works was one of the largest producers of salt in the South, a necessary preservative in those times. Salt sold for as much as $50 per bushel, and was produced in wood-fired salt works throughout the area. An estimated 2,500 men, primarily from Florida, Georgia, and Alabama, were exempted from combat duty to labor in the salt works. The salt was transported to Eufaula, Alabama, then to Montgomery, for distribution throughout the Confederate States. Because of the importance of St. Andrew Bay Salt Works to the Confederacy, acting Master W. R. Browne, commander of the USS Restless, was instructed to commence a series of assaults beginning in August 1862. By December 1863, additional Union attacks occurred, which Confederate home guards could not resist. The attacks resulted in the destruction of more than 290 salt works including 466 salt pans, kettles or cauldrons each over a crude bricked furnace. About a thousand bushels of salt were destroyed, as well as some fifty wagons and several score shacks, cabins, and rough store houses…“We had to knock down all the brick work, destroy the salt already made, and to knock in the barrel heads and set fire to barrels, boxes, and everything that would hold salt. 50 of them under sheet iron boilers of near 1,000 gallons capacity each were broken up. 250 houses and a quantity of provisions were burned valued by Master Browne at more than $3,000,000. The St. Andrew Bay Salt Works employees promptly rebuilt them, and they remained in operation through February 1865. At the beginning of the war the US was the largest user of salt in the world and the southern states used more than any other region. The antebellum south used 450 million pounds of salt a year most imported from England and Wales. There were six salt production regions in the south: The Kanawha Valley in West Virginia; Goose Creek Kentucky; Mobile, Alabama region; New Iberia, Louisiana; Saltville in southwestern Virginia’s remote highlands and St. Andrew’s Bay.
10. What two very high ranking Confederate generals shared a Southern cavalry nephew?
Robert E Lee and Samuel Cooper were both uncles to Fitzhugh Lee. Cooper’s sister-in law was Fitzhugh’s mother and was married to Robert’s Brother Sidney Smith Lee.
11. What was the name of the Lincoln Funeral Train rail car?
United States. It was built at the US Military Railroad Shop in Alexandria, Virginia between November 1863 and February 1865 and was intended to serve as the President’s private railcar.
12. How many Confederate officers or soldiers received brevet promotions?
None. Confederate policy allowed for such promotions but none were ever awarded.
13. What was the name of the vessel Admiral D. D. Porter sent to rescue the USS Indianola from rebel forces on the Lower Mississippi River in March 1863?
The USS Dummy!! It was a 300-ft wood hoax that cost $8.63. It frightened the Confederates into scuttling the recently captured Indianola. The only thing salvaged was the contents of the liquor locker.
14. What Civil War families provided more than one family member who became a general, admiral or a recognized Civil War hero? (I have 15 there are probably more. How many can you list?)
• Lee: Robert E, and sons G. W. Custis, W. H. Fitzhugh “Rooney”. All were Confederate Generals and Captain Sydney Smith Lee, CSN, hero of Gosport Navy Yard, Drewry’s Bluff and father of Confederate General Fitz Lee.
• Sherman; Union General brothers William Tecumseh and Francis T. and half-brothers Charles, Hugh B. and Thomas Ewing Jr.
• Semmes; Confederate BG Paul and Confederate Admiral Rafael (Captain of CSS Alabama)
• Rains: Confederates Gabriel J. (first use of Land Mines) and brother G.W.(Commander and founder of Augusta Powder Works).
• Cushing; Union Army Captain Alonzo H (MOH Gettysburg) and brother Navy Lt. William B. (the original SEAL).
• DuPont: Union Admiral Samuel F. DuPont and cousin Henry Algernon (Union artillerist and MOH for Cedar Creek, VA) later Major General.
• Porter: Brothers Admiral David Dixon Porter, Commodore William D. Porter and their adoptive brother Admiral David G. Farragut
• McCook: father Maj. Daniel, Sr., sons MG Alexander M., BG Robert Latimer, MG Edwin Stanton, BG Daniel, and cousins BG Edward M. and BG Anson G.
• Blair: Union Major General F. Preston Jr. and Montgomery (US Postmaster General)
• Hill: Confederate Generals AP Hill and cousin DH Hill.
• Drayton: Union Navy Flag-Captain Percival Drayton and General Thomas F. Drayton CSA.
• Terrill: BG William R. Terrill USA, (KIA Perryville) and BG James B Terrill, CSA (KIA Bethesda Church). Also two other brothers died in the war one serving on each side.
• Cooke: Union general Philip St. George Cooke and son-in-law Col. John Jacob Sharp and Confederate son General John Rogers Cooke and son-in-law JEB Stuart.
• Howard: Union generals Oliver O. Howard and brother Charles H. Howard went to Bowdoin College and West Point
• Dahlgren: RAdm. John A Dahlgren naval weapons pioneer; Capt (USN) Charles B. Dahlgren neutralized Vicksburg batteries; Col. Ulrich Dahlgren killed leading a famous raid on Richmond; and CS BG Charles G. Dahlgren (brother of John A.) raised and funded 3rd Brigade Army of Mississippi until relieved by Jeff Davis in a personal dispute.
• Ellet: Col Chas Ellet, Jr.; hero of Battle of Memphis(only KIA in the battle), brother BG A.W Ellet who seceded to command; son Col Chas R. Ellet took command after his uncle’s death.

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

May 2106 Quiz ST Louis Civil War Roundtable

St. Louis Civil War Roundtable – May 2016
1. What were the “omnibus promotions”?

2. In what speech did President Lincoln say, “You cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong”?

3. On the morning of 4 April 1865 President Lincoln arrived at what southern city to tour the vicinity? On what conveyance did he arrive? What horse did he ride on the tour?

4. Many are familiar with the story of the Confederate horse artilleryman Gallant Major Pelham. Who was the Union horse artilleryman who rode to the aid of the assaulting Federals? He was memorialized by an 1886 ink drawing entitled Fall of the Leaders?

5. Who are buried in the only two mausoleums in Arlington National Cemetery?

6. Which is larger Ft Jefferson or Ft Sumter?

7. On 20 October 1863 Col. Frank Wolford’s “Wild Riders” of the 1st Kentucky (Union) Cavalry was bested by Confederate cavalrymen of the 8th Tennessee under Col. George Dibrell and Col. J. J. Morrison at Philadelphia, Tennessee. What was the interesting logistical reason that this Federal defeat?

8. Who was Robert Walter Weir and what influence did he have on Civil War officers?

9. St Andrew’s Bay, Florida was the site of 1862-63 raids and amphibious assaults to destroy a Confederate production site of what strategic commodity?

10. What two very high ranking Confederate generals shared a Southern cavalry nephew?

11. What was the name of the Lincoln Funeral Train rail car?

12. How many Confederate officers or soldiers received brevet promotions?

13. What was the name of the vessel Admiral D. D. Porter sent to rescue the USS Indianola from rebel forces on the Lower Mississippi River in March 1863?

14. What Civil War families provided more than one family member who became a general, admiral or a recognized Civil War hero? (I have 15 there are probably more. How many can you list?

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

March 2016 CW Roundtable Quiz Answers

1. Who appointed George Pickett to the United States Military Academy Class of 1846?
Representative John T Stuart (D-Illinois) in 1842. Pickett was in Springfield studying law with Lincoln and Stuart who arranged the appointment. Pickett would never allow harsh comments about Lincoln in his presence. It is rumored that when Lincoln was in Richmond after the fall, he called upon Pickett’s home and met his wife, Sally, and kissed his baby boy. He introduced himself as “Abraham Lincoln, a friend”. Lincoln was a US Representative from 1847-49
2. What two brothers attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine in the 1850’s? One went on to attend the US Military Academy the other didn’t. One became a general in the Civil War and the other was his aide. Both brothers were wounded during the war.
Oliver Otis Howard (USMA 1854) and his younger brother Charles Henry were from Leeds, Maine. Oliver lost his right arm at Fair Oaks. Charles was wounded in the leg at Fair Oaks and again at Fredericksburg. Charles was discharged as a brigadier general being promoted 15 April 1865.
3. What was the common name normally used for the “Griffin Gun”?
The three-inch Ordnance Rifle, invented by John Griffin and manufactured at the Phoenix Iron Company in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania. This durable wrought iron rifle was considered the favorite of the cannoneers and was deadly accurate at anything under a mile.
4. What anti-emancipation Democrat was a frequent visitor to the White House?
Representative John T. Stuart was a favorite cousin of Mary Todd Lincoln and as a member of Congress after his election in 1862 over Republican Leonard Swett was a frequent visitor at the White House even though he was opposed to some Lincoln policies. He was defeated in 1864 by Republican Shelby Moore Cullom, a Lincoln ally.
5. When the 1st Maryland (CS) Infantry Regiment assaulted Culp’s Hill on 3 July 1863 at Gettysburg it reported 31 and 1 killed. Who was the one?
It was the regiment’s black mascot dog, Grace. Union General Thomas Kane recalled, “He licked someone’s hand, they said, after he was perfectly riddled.” Kane ordered the dog given decent burial “as the only Christian minded being on either side.” The charge is memorialized by Peter Frederick Rothermel’s 1870 oil painting. It was the first Confederate monument at Gettysburg and met a great deal of resistance from the battlefield commission authorities. It was finally allowed to be erected and was dedicated in 1884. But the commission required it to be designated as the “2nd Maryland Infantry” even though the unit was known as the First Maryland Battalion at the time of the battle. The reason given was there were already two Union regiments designated as the First Maryland and the Confederate 1st Maryland Battalion had been re-designated as the Second Maryland Regiment in 1864. This is not to be confused with the 11th Pennsylvania’s famous mascot “Sallie”.
6. Who was the Pennsylvania born Illinois music teacher that as an 8-year old child had been kicked by a horse and nearly killed thereby developing a fear and hatred of horses? He became a famous Union cavalry leader and ultimately a major general.
Benjamin Henry Grierson, he organized the US 10th Cavalry, Buffalo Soldiers and served on the frontier until retiring in 1890.
7. Who wrote the bestselling “anti-Tom” novel Aunt Phillis’s Cabin or Southern Life As It Is?
While in Washington, D.C. Mary Henderson Eastman, wife of Seth Eastman, wrote the counter to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s history changing book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin or Life Among The Lowly. Defending slavery, her novel was one of the most widely read at the time and sold 20,000-30,000 copies.
8. What were the names of the two main company streets at Camp Jackson in May 1861?
Davis and Beauregard
9. Whose name was the last uttered by Gen. Thomas J. Jackson on his deathbed?
Major Wells Joseph Hawks, Jackson’s commissary officer. After Jackson died he was staff for Ewell, Early and in Pennsylvania Lee. Per Shelby Foote, “Shortly after 3 o’clock, a few minutes before he died (Jackson) called out: “Order A. P. Hill to prepare for action! Pass the infantry to the front…Tell Major Hawks…” He left the sentence unfinished. Seeming to put the war behind him he calmly said “Let us cross over the river, and rest in the shade of the trees”, the quintessential compliment to military logisticians including Grant, Sherman, Hancock and many others.
10. What Southern officers and personalities were honored throughout the Confederacy upon their deaths? (I have six. How many can you name?)
MG James Ewell Brown Stuart
LTG Leonidas Polk
BG John Hunt Morgan
Major John Pelham
Mrs. Rose O’Neal Greenhow
LTG Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson

March St Louis Civil War Roundtable Quiz

1. Who appointed George Pickett to the United States Military Academy Class of 1846?

2. What two brothers attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine in the 1850’s? One went on to attend the US Military Academy the other didn’t. One became a general in the Civil War and the other was his aide. Both brothers were wounded during the war.

3. What was the common name normally used for the “Griffin Gun”?

4. What anti-emancipation democrat was a frequent visitor to the White House?

5. When the 1st Maryland (CS) Infantry Regiment assaulted Culp’s Hill on 3 July 1863 at Gettysburg it reported 31 and 1 killed. Who was the one?

6. Who was the Pennsylvania born Illinois music teacher that as an 8-year old child had been kicked by a horse and nearly killed thereby developing a fear and hatred of horses? He became a famous Union cavalry leader and ultimately a major general.

7. Who wrote the bestselling “anti-Tom” novel Aunt Phillis’s Cabin or Southern Life As It Is?

8. What were the names of the two main company streets at Camp Jackson in May 1861?

9. Whose name was the last uttered by Gen. Thomas J. Jackson on his deathbed?

10. What Southern officers and personalities that were honored throughout the Confederacy upon their deaths? (I have six. How many can you name?)

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

SLCWRT Feb Quiz Answers

1. What members of the Lincoln family accompanied the president’s remains on the Funeral Train Journey?
Son Robert Lincoln and his deceased brother William Wallace “Willie” Lincoln, whose casket was also in the President’s funeral car. Mary and Tad stayed in Washington. Lincoln’s cousin, John Hanks and Robert Lincoln were his only blood relatives at the burial.
2. In what battle did a 200 mule charge inspire an anonymous poet to write “The Charge of the Mule Brigade”?
At the battle at Wauhatchie, Tennessee, on the night of October 28, 1863, Union General John Geary’s troops held off the Confederates of General James Longstreet. Some 200 mules became terrified by the noisy battle and stampeded through the night into the center of General Wade Hampton’s southerners. Deciding that this was a cavalry attack, a good number of Hampton’s troops panicked and fled.
3. Union Generals Grant, Rufus Ingalls and Sheridan and others occasionally conversed in what unusual language?
Chinook Jargon was a pigeon-English dialect they learned during their time in the Pacific Northwest before the war. Sheridan lived with a native woman named Sidnayoh. West Point classmates Grant and Ingalls served together at Ft. Vancouver, Oregon Territory. George Pickett also spoke the dialect.
4. What ironclad raider was built is France for the Confederate Navy but was commissioned too late to be of any service?
The CSS Stonewall was built in Bordeaux, France launched 21 June 1864 and commissioned in January 1865 under Captain Thomas J Page CSN. It was the only Confederate warship built in France.
5. Considering the amount of time Civil War soldiers spent in the field, snake bite was not as serious a problem as one might think. How many snake bite cases were reported in the Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion? How many fatalities?
213 bites from poisonous snakes were reported. There were only two fatalities reported including one at Pensacola, Florida where a Confederate soldier was bitten by a coral snake.
6. What was the only US Territory to pass legislation protecting chattel slavery? What was the slave population of the territory?
New Mexico in 1859. Slave population was two (2).
7. According to the estimate of Col J. H. Baker, provost-marshal general in St. Louis, how many steamboats owned in St. Louis had been destroyed during the four years of war by sabotage?
More than seventy with only nine destroyed in combat. Edward Frazor was reportedly paid $35,000 in gold to settle their claims for destroyed US property by Judah P. Benjamin, Confederate Sec of War during the summer of 1864.
8. What was the unique responsibility of the Union company called the Sturgis Rifles?
A separate militia company organized at Chicago, armed, equipped and subsisted for nearly two months by the patriotic generosity of Mr. Solomon Sturgis. The company of Illinois sharpshooters mustered into Federal service on May 6, 1861. They served as part of Major General George B. McClellan’s headquarters bodyguard throughout his time in command. McClellan had been a member of the company prior to the war and outfitted them with the Sharps rifle, an expensive rifle not issued to regular infantrymen. The company was mustered out on November 25, 1862. Commanded by Captain James Steel, the regiment lost one enlisted man who died of disease, for a total of one fatality. The company was never brigaded.
9. What army did Gen. U. S. Grant steal? (Hint: it occurred in December 1862)
When Grant had been give command in the West he was told by Halleck that he commanded all the forces in his area and could use them as he saw fit. About the same time, Gen John C. McClernand had been given authority by President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton to recruit his own army to take Vicksburg. McClernand recruited volunteers in Illinois, Indiana and Iowa and had them assemble in Memphis. When Grant got wind of the competitive army, he sent Sherman to Memphis and moved the entire army south on riverboats to attack Chickasaw Bluffs. When McClernand arrived at Memphis on 29 December he learned his army had been shipped out on the 19th. He was given a corps command under Grant for his trouble.

10. Nominate your list of the ten (10) most accomplished cavalry leaders of the Civil War for the title of “Best
Civil War Cavalry Commander”.
JEB Stuart
Fitzhugh Lee
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Wade Hampton
Phil Sheridan
George A. Custer
Joe Wheeler
David McM Gregg
Alfred Pleasonton
Philip St George Cooke
John Bufford
Thomas Rosser
George Stoneman

copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

Answers to January 2016 CWRT Trivia Quiz

1. Who is thought to have designed the Rising Moon Confederate battle flag?
The “Hardee” flag was believed to be designed by Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner although some references credit Gen. Hardee. The flag of Hardee’s corps was favored by Arkansas regiments and when the ANV flag was brought west by Gen. Beauregard in a move to standardization, Gen. Patrick Cleburne refused to use it as they were very attached to the blue flag that had Scottish legacy attached.
2. Mr. John Steiner on 25 March 1862 performed what tactical assignment that was unique in the western theaters?
He adjusted artillery fire on Island No. 10 from a balloon, the only balloon operation in the west.

3. Army Captain Henry Maynadier commanded what naval bombardment in March1862?
He was the commander of the fourteen mortar scows bombarding Island No. 10.

4. How was Confederate cavalry commander BG James H. Dearing killed?
During Lee’s retreat in April, 1865, he was mortally wounded in a encounter with Union Brigadier Theodore Read, commanding a combined infantry/cavalry force of Ord’s Army of the James. The two met on the 5th of April at High Bridge above the Appomattox, at the head of their forces, and a pistol duel ensued. General Read was instantly killed, but General Dearing lingered for a few days after the surrender of General Lee, when he died in the old City hotel at Lynchburg.
5. Who was the last general of either side killed in the Civil War?
Confederate Brigadier Robert C. Tyler was killed 16 April 1865 defending Ft. Tyler near West Point, Georgia.
6. What Union unit was known as the “Lightning Brigade” and the “Hatchet Brigade”?
Col. John T. Wilder’s brigade of Reynolds’s division—1,500 men of the 17th and 72nd Indiana regiments and the 98th and 123rd Illinois got their nicknames at Hoover’s Gap in June 1863 in the Tulahoma Campaign. They found horses and mules in the countryside and armed themselves with long handled hatchets for hand-to-hand combat, which caused their unit to be derisively nicknamed the “Hatchet Brigade”. Their more lethal armament were the seven-shot Spencer repeating rifles carried by all the men. Wilder’s brigade had mobility and firepower, but also high unit morale.
7. Who was the war correspondent for the New York Tribune who reported on the Battle of Shiloh and after the war became a financier, philanthropist and founder of the company we know as General Electric?
Henry Villard was the representative of a news agency established by him in Washington and was often at the front. Out of his experiences reporting the Civil War, he became a confirmed pacifist.
8. What were the duty stations of Captain Lewis A. Armistead and Captain Winfield Scott Hancock when they celebrated their famous parting before the Civil War?
Armistead was at the New San Diego Depot and Hancock was an assistant quartermaster at Los Angeles under Brevet Brigadier Albert Sidney Johnston.
9. Who is the highest ranking Confederate general officer buried in a St. Louis cemetery?Lieutenant General (temporary) Alexander Peter Stewart, who was commander of the III Corps of the Army of Tennessee at Franklin and Nashville and Commanding General of the Army of Tennessee under Joe Johnston in the Carolinas. He is buried at Bellefontaine Cemetery.
10. Who were Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston’s Confederate Corps Commanders at Shiloh?
John C. Breckinridge, William Hardee, Braxton Bragg and Leonides K. Polk. PGT Beauregard was his second in command and the officer who drew up the battle plan. Stationed in the rear by Johnston he was not able to take command when Johnston was killed. The ranking officer at the front was Bragg, who called of the offensive against Grant’s last line.

11. What Civil War developments had a profound effect on all of future military thinking? (I have 6 there may be more)(This is a thinking question just scour you memory)
• 8 March 1852 wooden navies became obsolete at the Battle of Hampton Roads
• 24 June 1863 single shot weapons became obsolete when Wilder’s Brigade engage Confederates with Spencer repeating rifles at Hoover’s Gap
• 17 February 1864 surface vessels at risk USS Housatonic sunk by CSS Hunley.
• 22 May 1863 Union conducts first synchronized assault on line from Stockade Redan to Ft. Garrott at Vicksburg due to availability of inexpensive pocket watch.
• The possibilities of air reconnaissance and attack from the air were the progeny of the balloon corps.
• Grant’s and Sherman’s concept of total war became the war philosophy of the future.
(There are many many other technical developments)

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

CWRT St Louis January 2016 Quiz

January 2016

1. Who is thought to have designed the Rising Moon Confederate battle flag?

2. Mr. John Steiner on 25 March 1862 performed what tactical assignment that was unique in the western theaters?

3. Army Captain Henry Maynadier commanded what naval bombardment in March1862?

4. How was Confederate cavalry commander BG James H. Dearing killed?

5. Who was the last general of either side killed in the Civil War?

6. What Union unit was known as the “Lightning Brigade” and the “Hatchet Brigade”?

7. Who was the war correspondent for the New York Tribune who reported on the Battle of Shiloh and after the war became a financier, philanthropist and founder of the company we know as General Electric?

8. What were the duty stations of Captain Lewis A. Armistead and Captain Winfield Scott Hancock when they celebrated their famous parting before the Civil War?

9. Who is the highest ranking Confederate general officer buried in a St. Louis cemetery?

10. Who were Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston’s Confederate Corps Commanders at Shiloh?

11. What Civil War developments had a profound effect on all of future military thinking? (I have 6 there may be more)(This is a thinking question just scour you memory)

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2016

Answers December 2015 CWRT Quiz

St. Louis Civil War Roundtable
Nov-December 2015
1. What tradition, that still exists in the south today, about a New Year’s Day culinary delicacy which owes its origin to Sherman’s March through Georgia?
Eating black-eyed peas is thought to bring prosperity and good luck. Sherman’s bummers took everything edible and left the population virtually destitute, except black-eyed peas or cowpeas, which they considered inedible by humans and only fit for livestock. The southern population subsisted on the abandoned stocks of this legume until they could get new crops planted and harvested after the war was over.
2. Muppet master Jim Henson may have inherited some of his artistic talent from what Confederate cartographer, who was a protégée of Jedediah Hotchkiss in Jackson’s Corps, a veteran of the US Coast Survey organization, and his grandfather?
Captain Oscar Hinrichs, the Prussian born surveyor and map maker, who worked for the US Coast Survey from 1855 to 1860 along the southeast US coast. He defected after the fall of Ft. Sumter and prepared maps for General Thomas J. Jackson.
3. What Confederate state capitals were ransacked and burned by General Sherman and his armies during the war?
Jackson, Mississippi in 1863; Columbia, South Carolina and Milledgeville, Georgia were burned. Raleigh, North Carolina was also taken by Sherman but was not burned due to Sherman’s belief that North Carolina was a reluctant rebel state. His army also marched through Richmond en-route to the Grand Review.
4. What Confederate unit attacked in white uniforms and routed the enemy?
Gen. Sterling Price’s 1st Missouri Guard Division at Pea Ridge in the evening of 7 March 1862. They were wearing un-dyed cotton uniforms which appeared eerily white coming out of the forest. The 2d Texas also wore un-died uniforms at Shiloh.
5. The Union Army of the West was effectively constituted twice during the Civil War. Who were the two commanders and where did the armies come together each time?
At Shiloh for the move against Corinth under Gen. Henry Halleck was the first. At Chattanooga under General Grant for the relief of that city was the second. Sherman made it official and took it south to Atlanta. There was also a Confederate Army of the West under Gen. Earl Van Dorn. Lyon’s Union Army at Wilson’s Creek was referred to as Army of the West.
6. What is unique about colored Union Private J. R. Kealoha, who recently was given a civilian tombstone for his unmarked grave?
Private Kealoha was a member of the 41st Infantry Regiment USCT, Army of the James. He is buried in Oahu Cemetery. He was one of some 119 native Hawaiians who served in the Civil War. Most served the Union but a few were part of the Confederate Navy. Most served under false names and therefore are difficult to trace. They used nome d’guerre because they were in fact citizens of a foreign nation at the time with sympathy for the South. The 41st was recruited and organized in the Philadelphia area. Hawaiians and Indians were considered colored.
7. What were the national political parties of the Confederacy?
No parties were established to avoid the political wrangling experienced by the United States. Two factions ultimately emerged, one was pro-Davis Administration and was universally opposed to it on almost every issue. There were some local and regional parties for favorite son candidates and issues.
8. What company invented the first automated candy making machine and advertised their product for families to send to Union servicemen during the Civil War?
The New England Confectionary Company first produced NECCO Wafers in 1847. Oliver Chase, an English immigrant, invented a lozenge cutting machine with which he produced the wafers. At the time of the Civil War, these were called “hub wafers” and were popularly carried by Union soldiers.

9. What Civil War battles included a forced river crossing against an enemy actively defending the far shore?
• Burnside at Fredericksburg
* Custer at Chickahominy 24 May 1862
• Grant at Bruinsburg
• Burnside at Antietam
• Byram’s Ford I and II over the Big Blue River 22Oct64 (US Gen. Blunt defended
against Jo Shelby) and 23 Oct 64(CS Gen.Marmaduke defended against Pleasanton)
• Grant deferred at North Anna do to the strength of Lee’s defensive position.
* Balls Bluff
* Stones River
AND MAYBE MORE!!

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2015

December 2015 Roundtable Quiz

St. Louis Civil War Roundtable
Nov-December 2015

1. What tradition, that still exists in the South today, about a New Year’s Day culinary delicacy owes its origin to Sherman’s March through Georgia?

2. Muppet master Jim Henson may have inherited some of his artistic talent from what Confederate cartographer, who was a protégée of Jedediah Hotchkiss in Jackson’s Corps, a veteran of the US Coast Survey organization, and his grandfather?

3. What Confederate state capitals were ransacked and burned by General Sherman and his army during the war?

4. What Confederate unit attacked in white uniforms and routed the enemy?

5. The Union Army of the West was effectively constituted twice during the Civil War. Who were the two commanders and where did the armies come together each time?

6. What is unique about colored Union Private J. R. Kealoha, who recently was given a civilian tombstone for his unmarked grave?

7. What were the political parties of the Confederacy?

8. What company invented the first automated candy making machine and advertised their product for families to send to Union servicemen during the Civil War?

9. What Civil War battles included a forced river crossing against an enemy actively defending
the far shore? (I have 5 there may be more)

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2015

Answers to October 2015 SLCWRT Quiz

St. Louis Civil War Roundtable-October 2015
1. Who was the first American spy to be executed since Nathan Hale in 1776?
Timothy Webster, a Pinkerton agent, was hanged in Richmond on 29 April 1862.
2. Who was the source from whom Rose O’Neal Greenhow reputedly gained the information on the Union movement to 1st Bull Run that she sent to Gen Beauregard?
Senator Henry D. Wilson,(R-Mass), Chairman of the the Committee on Military Affairs and the Militia, In that capacity, Wilson passed on over 15,000 nominations that Lincoln submitted during the course of the War, and worked closely with him on legislation affecting the Army and Navy. Wilson was elected Vice President of the United States on the Republican ticket with President Ulysses S. Grant in 1873 and served until his death two years later.
3. “Crazy Bet” was a Union agent in Richmond. What was her real name and how did she get the valuable information that she passed on to Washington?
Elizabeth Van Lew had her personal servant Mary Jane Bowser hired by Mrs. Davis as a house servant. She was highly gifted and could read so she was able to memorize information on President Davis’ desk and pass it on clearly to Union officials.
4. Confederate agents in Canada planned to capture what Union warship in an attempt to release the officer prisoners at Johnson Island Prison?
Lt. John Y. Beall planned to capture the USS Michigan, a steel hulled side wheel steamer. He was captured at Niagara Falls and hanged for espionage on 24 February 1865.
5. How did the famed Confederate spy Rose O’Neal Greenhow die?
She drowned running the blockade with $2000 in gold sovereigns in a bag around her neck and a satchel of documents off the coast of Cape Fear near Ft. Fisher when the ship Condor grounded on 1 October 1864 in a furious storm and she insisted in being put into a lifeboat.
6. Where did Belle Boyd, famous for carrying dispatches and information on Union dispositions and very helpful to Stonewall Jackson, gain her reputation?
In the Shenandoah Valley and especially around Front Royal.
7. What was the name of the Unionist informant that advised Gen. Phil Sheridan that one of Gen. Early’s infantry divisions and an artillery battalion had left the Shenandoah Valley to join Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army near Petersburg? The young woman, who had now become a spy, and the Union general communicated by writing on thin tissue paper placed in a tiny capsule that Thomas Laws, her slave, carried in his mouth when passing through Rebel lines? Her information aided Sheridan at the Third Battle of Winchester on 19 September 1864.
Rebecca Wright. After the war, Wright received a note of thanks from Sheridan that it was her “information that the battle was fought and probably won.” Accompanying the note was a gift of a gold watch set in pearls, which she would cherish. Totally ostracized by her neighbors in Winchester, Wright moved to Philadelphia; and, through Sheridan’s intercession, was awarded a position in the Treasury Department. She became a celebrity in the North, often invited to women’s suffrage and Grand Army of the Republic events.
8. What behind the lines operation resulted in the first awards of the Medal of Honor?
The Union attempt to destroy the railroad from Atlanta to Chattanooga often called the Great Locomotive Chase was led by civilian James J. Andrews, who did not qualify for the medal because he was not officially in the military. Eight were hanged as spies and eighteen were awarded the Nation’s highest honor.
9. Who was the Union spy, recruited by Alan Pinkerton, who disguised herself as a black woman and as a man to gather intelligence information?
Emma Edmonds enlisted as a man, Frank Thompson, and often had to disguise herself as a black woman or a male soldier. Consider a woman posing as a man disguised as a black woman!
10. Who was the Confederate agent famously responsible for burning riverboats on the St. Louis levee?
Robert Louden was an arsonist who on his deathbed in 1867 claimed to have sabotaged the steamer Sultana.
11. Who assumed the responsibility for Union intelligence as head of The Bureau of Military Information when Alan Pinkerton resigned? Gen. Winfield Scott hired Lafayette C. Baker then Gen Hooker appointed lawyer and Colonel George H. Sharpe on 11 February 1863 who founded the BMI.
12. What Union generals issued emancipation orders or decrees that caused President Lincoln to have to issue rescind orders? (I am aware of three.)
• John C. Frémont, St. Louis, MO, Headquarters Western Department, 31 Aug 1861
• Benjamin Butler, Ft. Monroe, VA, never issued an emancipation proclamation but detained freedom seeking runaways as “contraband of war”. Lincoln sustained Butler’s action with the Confiscaton Act of August 1861. Other commanders followed Butler’s precedent.
• David Hunter, Hilton Head, SC, Headquarters Department of the South, 9 May 1862.

Copyright ©John A. Nischwitz 2015

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